Domain: https://carryiton.net
(previously
at http://silcom.com/~barnowl)

Version: 2/13/024

Chain
Letter Evolution

A history of chain letters based on over 1000 dated examples.
Numerically successful variations are identified and analyzed for their
replicative advantage. English language paper luck chain letters are
the principal topic. Other topics include the Letters from Heaven and
the "Media Chain Letter" which lured celebrity participants in 1990. A bibliography on
chain letters and pyramid schemes contains hundreds of sources,
including all citations in Chain Letter Evolution. A glossary of
specialized terminology used in Chain Letter Evolution is also
provided. (Hits 4/2019: 276K)

The Origin of Money Chain Letters

A detailed discussion of the origin and early
history of the
"Send-a-Dime" craze of 1935 - the first manifestation of money chain
letters and pyramid schemes. It is shown that the Send-a-Dime letter
was in part modeled on a prior type of luck chain letter. The likely
author of Send-a-Dime was an anonymous woman motivated by charity. This
constitutes a section of Chain Letter Evolution, but can be read
independently.

The
Paper Chain
Letter Archive

Individual html web pages for over 1000 chain letters arranged by
motivational category and date. Categories include luck chain letters
(600 examples), money, advocacy, "Letters from Heaven", charity, and
exchange. Some unusual items: an anonymous 1917 chain
letter giving advice on obtaining conscientious objector
status; a 1920 Sinn
Fein revolutionary communication; rare scatological parody letters from 1935; a chain letter invitation to a suicide
from 1937; apparently the only complete text on the web of
the famous Circle of Gold pyramid scheme, this from England, 1982;
a libelous Proctor and Gamble boycott alleging satanism from 1986.
An annotated index provides
easy access to all chain letters in the archive. Chain letter citations in Chain Letter Evolution
link to this archive.

Eat
No Dynamite *** ADULT CONTENTS
***

A documented collection of over 900 graffiti, including 64 drawings,
from the main libraries at UCSB and UCLA. Most were recorded in 1979
and 1980. Comments, including estimates of dispersion. (Hits
4/2019: 21K)

See that distant swell? That is the next
great wave
of youth rebellion - coming to sweep away the castles of fear.

Erase racism.

End the dominance of dominance.

Some day to walk a distant shore.

FOUND LETTERS

Four Letters from
Millie: 1930-31

Four personal letters to a male admirer from a woman abandoned by her
husband. "Yes dear, I will come there if you send me money."

Matchmaking
letter and response: 1917

A matchmaking letter from an engaged woman to a Yale student and his
enthusiastic response, "provided if she is musical."

Four Letters to
Helen Porter: 1926-31

Four personal letter sent to Miss Helen Porter in Detroit. The first is
an unsuccessful proposal of marriage. "I hope you don't think me
foolish."

MATHEMATICS

__Homogeneous
Transformation Matrices__

Explicit n-dimensional expressions for homogeneous matrix
representations of familiar geometric transformations including
projection, dilation, reflection, shear, strain, and rotation. These
are extracted from my article "Homogeneous Transformation Matrices for
Computer Graphics," *Computers
& Graphics*, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1994. (Hits 4/2019: 148K)

Homogeneous
Coordinates: Methods

A selection of facts, theorems and methods utilizing homogeneous
coordinates. This is a companion article to "Homogeneous Transformation
Matrices" and provides methods sufficient to derive all the matrices
presented there. Other topics include: n-dimensional oriented content,
intersections, and projection.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The trines - a ternary axiom system

xxx
Note:
A detailed exposition, with all proofs, is being prepared. No major errors
have been detected, but no
comments on the "trines" have been received. (10/29/2023)

The "trines" should prove useful because they provide a simple ternary
context to find new theorems and proofs involving familiar fields. They
may also be useful in characterizing new applications. No advanced
methods are used here and results are restricted to a rational venue.

Start
with three distinct "trines", A,B,C, and a
ternary operation, "junction", the junction of trines E,F,G, denoted by
the trine <E,F,G>. Generate all possible expressions using only
A,B,C and junction. Here are four examples of trines: B, <B,A,C>,
<A,A,C>, and <B,C,<A,<C,A,B>,C>>. The trines
are subject to just three equivalence axioms.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AXIOMS FOR THE TRINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. Generation. The **trines **are: (1) the distinct **primals** A,B,C,** **and (2) the **junction **of any three trines E,F,G, designated <E,F,G>.

In each of the following three axioms, a fixed
permutation may be applied to the order of the members of every
junction in the axiom. E,F,X,Y,Z are any trines except for the stated restriction.

2. Unpairing. <E,F,F> = F

3. Inversion. <E,F,<F,E,X>> = X , E and F distinct.

4. Projection. <E,F,<X,Y,Z>> = <<E,F,X>,<E,F,Y>,<E,F,Z>>.

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .

The following ternary operation on the trines is very useful. For any trines R,U,V,W the **primal replacement **in **host** R by **members **U,V,W,
designated R(U,V,W), is the trine constructed by replacing every A in R
by U, every B in R by V, and every C in R by W,
simultaneously. Replacements
of the form A(U,V,V), B(V,U,V), C(V,V,U), U != V, are undefined. It can
be shown by induction that when R is any trine not equal to A, B or
C, then as in the axioms, R(E,F,F) = F, R(E,F,R(F,E,X)) = X, and
R(E,F,R(X,Y,Z)) = R(R(E,F,X),R(E,F,Y),R(E,F,Z)).

Trines can be constructed within the field Q+(d) of all rational expressions in an indeterminate d, **augmented** with plus or minus infinity. If the cross ratio [e,f;g,h] = r holds in Q+(d) I write r[e,f,g] = h. Solving the cross ratio [(e-g)(f-h)] / [(e-h)(f-g)] = r for h gives h = r[e,f,g] = [re(f-g)) + f(g-e)] / [r(f-g) + (g-e)]. Define r[e,e,e] = e, any r, e. If for the ternary
function r[e,f,g] (crossjunction) the
members are fixed, a projective function on r is defined. The
following notation is useful here: a=plus or minus infinity, b=0,
c=1. It is shown that function d[x,y,z] generates every element of Q+(d), starting with inputs a, b, c. Then
the correspondences: a~A, 0~B, 1~C, d~D, x+y ~ <<X,B,A>,
A, <A,B,Y>>, -x ~ <B, A,
<A,<X,B,A>,B>>, xy ~ X(A,B,Y), and 1/x ~ X(B,A,C), provide
a bijective
mapping of Q+(d) to equivalence classes of trines. The trine axioms correspond to theorems in Q+(d), proving that the trines are relatively consistent with Q+(d). Defining
primal replacement in Q+(d) the same as for trines,
the theorem r(e,f,g) =
r[e,f,g] is key and may be new.

Further, the augmented field Q+(d) can be constructed within the trines. The correspondences A~a, B~0, C~1, D=<A,B,C> ~ d and R(E,F,G) ~ r[e,f,g], where R~r, E~e, F~f, G~g, assuming X~x and Y~y, define Q+(d) field operations in terms of trines. These are proved to obey the corresponding field axioms for each operation. This construction shows that the trines have been adequately defined and that they can prove any theorem that Q+(d) can. The trines greatly facilitate proofs by induction.

If for a nonconstant mapping P on any distinct trines E,F,G: P(<E,F,G>) = <P(E),P(F),P(G)> P is "projective", and P is called a "projection". Each such mapping corresponds to a projectivity on Q+(d) (synonymously a "homography" or "linear fractional transformation"). The trines can construct other fields by adding junctional equivalences to the trine axioms. For example, requiring <A,B,C> = <B,A,C> implies d = -1 and generates the rational numbers. Requiring <A,B,C> = <<B,C,A>,A,B> implies d = i = sqrt(-1) and generates the complex numbers with rational coefficients.The trine axioms are very simple and can construct the positive integers. The product formula x*y = <<a,b,<x,y,c>>, <x,y,<a,b,c>>, c> may then be useful. However trines do not easily manifest the point-line duality of projective geometry, nor do they easily extend to higher geometric dimensions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

**POLITICS**

Subject Guide to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (with drawing "Human Rights Ascendence")

... it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

(Preamble, paragraph 3)

The Self-Appointed Nonviolent Truth Avengers - (SANTA)

Three letters from the "Self Appointed Nonviolent Truth Avengers (SANTA)". These protest: (1) the product placement of Coca Cola in the movie ET (1982), (2) a beef industry TV ad (1987), and (3) the CBS special "Ancient Secrets of the Bible" (1992). SANTA describes itself as follows (1992):

Daniel W. VanArsdale on TwitterSANTA is a decentralized communication process opposing deceit and exploitation of children by the media. We use only education, rebuke, and satire. No person's name may be mentioned. Anyone who loves the truth and obeys these rules may fully participate in SANTA.

Mathematician, independent researcher. Human Rights, kindness to animals, environmentalism, truth for its own sake, peace, nonviolence, antifundamentalism.

Some of my tweets

The trouble with conservatives is they say they are for freedom but they do not like people to be different.

If there is a devil he is putting war on the table.

How great can America be without honor?

Love is not all we need, but it is what we need most.

When money rules who is free?

At least the secular humanists never burned a witch.

Truth is the goal. The goal is the way. The way is truth.

Creativity favors the Left in music, drama, poetry, and art. But it favors the Right in slander.

Noah had crabs.

They would rather go down with the Titanic as long as they had first class seats. Bernie Sanders

I believe this theory that Darwin came up with was ... encouraged by the adversary. Dr. Ben Carson

American Libertarianism is basically the advocacy of private tyranny. Noam Chomsky, 2015

Heave an egg out of a Pullman window, and you will hit a Fundamentalist almost anywhere in the Unites States. H. L. Mencken, 1925.

Those who lack imagination can not imagine what is lacking. Graffito, Paris, May 1968.

In the future world, only the children will be privileged. Graffito, Santiago, Chile, 1970.

Every day is Auschwitz for factory animals. Graffito (edited), from

Republicans have not cared about you since you were a fetus. Bumper Sticker

MISCELLANEOUS

The womb gate has opened and closed -- William
Blake Dylan

Several poems and fragments given to me by an anonymous hitchhiker in
1973. They express his painful discovery that his mother could no
longer help him, and that his counter-culture friendships and drug
experiences were fleeting and duality ridden.

Wayne Morris Bell,
1937-1968

A tribute to a close friend who served with me in the Army in Korea in
1963 and was killed in action in Vietnam in 1968.

The
Little Golden Concert Hour

Have you ever heard of this local radio program from around 1950,
probably broadcast from San Jose, California?

Highly
Improbable Personally
Experienced Repetitions

A list of 30 experiences, by myself or people close to me, that appear
to involve some paranormal phenomenon. Most are seeming precognitive
dreams I have had, some recorded in a journal before an improbable
repetition occurred. Others were repetitions in daily life. Example:

8/17/1975. Huntington Beach, California (recorded in Oxnard). From journal, volume #3, 6 page stapled insert.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"Met a woman, Judy, in Huntington Beach whom I was matched with in a computer dating service. She had a 3 year old boy. Shortly before the child was to go to the baby sitter he began to cry. I went in to his room and got him to talking about his books. He started telling me about his favorite - Donald Duck as a detective. On one page was a picture of 5 or 6 sea animals. He pointed to the picture and named the creatures. But he called a lobster a crab. His mother (on my correcting him) said she was the source of the misidentification.

"Later I was watching television with his mother. Toward the end of the Cher Show people were dressed as food. A man had a crab around his neck. Cher said something very close to: "it should have been a lobster."

Chess with
Chinese Pieces

Advocates free placement of the chess pieces to form a starting position, and the addition of "Chinese" pieces: the Pao or Cannon, Vao and Leo. These move like an orthodox Rook, Bishop and Queen respectively, but must pass over a piece of either color to capture. Presents eleven new chess problems composed by the author using Chinese pieces. For each problem there is a link to its solution. Since uploading this web page in 2004 some computer programs play better than any human. Below are four of the problems presented, with links to their solution.

Advocates free placement of the chess pieces to form a starting position, and the addition of "Chinese" pieces: the Pao or Cannon, Vao and Leo. These move like an orthodox Rook, Bishop and Queen respectively, but must pass over a piece of either color to capture. Presents eleven new chess problems composed by the author using Chinese pieces. For each problem there is a link to its solution. Since uploading this web page in 2004 some computer programs play better than any human. Below are four of the problems presented, with links to their solution.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Mate in three. Cannons (paos) on a4, g1, h1.

Daniel W. VanArsdale, 8/2017.

Solution

Employ the Dead

A discussion of Sam Loyd's Dummy Promotion problem.

Daniel W. VanArsdale email: barnowl@silcom.com

This page:
https://carryiton.net/index.html